Electric Vehicle Glossary of Terms

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Here is an Electric Vehicle Glossary of Terms related to Electric Vehicle charging, types of EVs and basic concepts.

Basic Concepts

Home Charging

It is an option of charging your electric vehicle at your home, typically overnight. It requires you to set up a charging point at your home. There is wide range of home charging systems available with up to 6 times fast charging option.

En-Route charging

It is a feature of EV that enables dynamic charging. You can charge your vehicle quickly with the help of rapid chargers. These rapid chargers allow 80% charge in just 30 minutes.

I.C.E.d

It means than an internal combustion engine car has been parked in a space reserved for charging electric cars. It’s one of the most common mannerism ignorance that people practice. There has been high demand promoting ICEd related traffic etiquette.

Have look at common etiquette to follow while charging electric vehicles.

Range Anxiety

Range anxiety is the fear that an Electric vehicle will run out of charge before reaching its destination. This is considered as one of the significant obstructions to vast scale adoption of EVs. You can avoid Range Anxiety by top up charging.

Range per Hour (RPH)

It is a unit to measure the distance that an electric car can go in one hour of charge. Its standard unit is ‘Miles of range per hour’.

Kilowatt Hour (kWh)

It is a measure of electrical energy equivalent to a power consumption of one thousand watts for one hour. It is denoted by kWh. In electric vehicles, it measures the power of electric motor of the car.

Open Charge

It is a technology which allows to charge your EV without RFID cards or membership.

Open Charge is also a global database of EV charging locations developed to provide complete information about charging locations to EV drivers. It is an app that displays locations and their information on map. 

Li-ion

It stands for Lithium Ion battery, a rechargeable battery used in Electric vehicles. The lithium ions in the battery move from negative electrode to positive electrode. It is most common type of rechargeable battery which is used in many appliances and devices.

Vehicle Types

Electric Vehicle (EV)

It is powered by one or more electric motors. The power source for the electric motor can be many like battery, solar panel, generator, etc. Battery run EVs are most common.

Plug-in Vehicle (PIV)

Any vehicle which is equipped with charging facility. It includes BEV and PHEV.

New Energy Vehicle (NEV)

Any vehicle which runs of new types of renewable energy. BEVs and PHEVs fall in this category.

Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)

It is a variant of electric vehicles which run by 100% electric power. In these vehicles chemical energy of rechargeable batteries is used. This chemical energy powers electric motor equipped in electric vehicle. They do not provide hybrid options.

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV)

Plug-in Hybrid uses combination of rechargeable battery and traditional internal combustion engine. This allows for driving solely on electric power and using petrol/diesel/CNG in case of low battery charge.

Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV)

It is an electric motor powered vehicle that emits extremely low level of emission as compared to combustion engine vehicles. Typical tailpipe carbon dioxide emissions of less than 75 g/km.

Range Extended EV

It is a type of electric vehicle that has an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU). This APU is known as range extender. This range extender operates a generator, which charges the battery using petrol.

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)

These vehicles use a fuel cell instead of battery to power the electric motor. Fuel cells use oxygen and compressed hydrogen to generate electricity. They are zero emission vehicles and only emit water and heat.

Alternate Fuel Vehicle (AFV)

It is the type of vehicle that uses non-conventional fuels. They are mostly electric cars, hybrid electric cars or solar powered cars. This concept was developed keeping in mind high prices of petroleum and biological degradation.

Types of charging

Trickle Charging

It is slowest charging option available. This is a typical home charging done by 3 pin socket charger. This is best for charging your EV overnight. 

Slow charging

It is the rate of charging of a rechargeable battery. The rate is usually slow and battery needs prolonged charging.

Fast charging

It is the charging of EV battery at a faster rate. Fast charging method makes use of high amperage charger and varying voltage that increases the potential energy going into the battery.

Rapid Charging

It is fast charging that quickly charges an EV and you can have high range in just a few minutes of charge.

Top Up Charging

Charging your vehicle whenever you park it. You don’t need to wait till battery discharges. You can charge it even if your battery is considerably charged. This avoids range anxiety.

Single-Phase Power

It is distribution of alternating current electric power by a system in which the voltages differ. It is used in electric cars because single phase power supply doesn’t produce revolving magnetic field. This is standard power supply provided by household 3 pin socket.

Three-Phase Power

It is a method used to develop alternating current electric power. The transmission and distribution of AC current is done in this method. This is commonly used for commercial purpose.

Charging Levels

Level 1

Level 1 is slowest charging level. It is a standard 3 Pin charger. Power output is 1 KW and approximate charging time is 8 to 15 hours.

Level 2

Level 2 charger is faster than level 1. It is commonly used in public charging stations. Power output is 3 to 20 kW. 3 to 8 hours are required to charge battery.

Level 3

Level 3 charger is a fast charger. Also known as DC Fast Charger (DCFC). Power output is more than 15 kW. Typically it is 20 kW and can be upto 50 kW. Time taken to charge full battery is 20 mins to 1 hour.

Charging Cable Connector Types

Type 1 Connector

This is a five pin plug with typically 3 kW AC power output. It is also known slow connector used generally as household charger.

Type 2 Connector

It is seven pin plug used for charging electric vehicle within Europe and People’s Republic of China. It is used for charging electric vehicles at 50 kilowatts.

CHAdeMO

It is an association that aims to increase quick-charger installations world-wide. CHAdeMO stands for Charge de Move, meaning move using charging. It can charge electric cars having range up to 75 miles in less than half an hour. It aims to develop 400 Kw ultra fast charging technology for electric vehicles.

Combined Charging System (CCS)

The Combined Charging System is a standardized charging condition in light of various benchmarks which depict the important parts for standardized, sheltered and dependable charging of electric vehicles. This charging condition includes charging couplers, charging correspondence, charging stations, the electric vehicle and different capacities for the charging procedure as e.g. stack adjusting and charge approval.

The Combined Charging System permits AC charging utilizing Type 1 and Type 2 connector. Further, in light of this connector, the Combo 1 and Combo 2 connectors have been presented, which depend on the Type 1 and 2 connectors. These are outfitted with two extra DC contacts which permit High Power DC charging for shorter charging times.

UK 3 Pin

It is a standard 3 pin charging socket which is used in Europe to charge electric vehicles.

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